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Table 1 Definition of early and late treatment failures

From: Impact of retreatment with an artemisinin-based combination on malaria incidence and its potential selection of resistant strains: study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial

Early treatment failure (one of the following) Late treatment failure
(i) Development of danger signs or severe malaria on day 0, day 1, day 2 or day 3, in the presence of parasitemia Late treatment failure is divided into late clinical and late parasitological failure
(ii) Parasite density on day 2 > day 0 count, irrespective of tympanic temperature Late clinical failure:
(iii) Presence of parasitemia on day 3 with fever (tympanic temperature ≥ 38.0°C) (i) Development of danger signs or severe malaria after day 3 in the presence of parasitemia
(iv) Parasitemia on day 3 ≥ 25% of count on day 0 (ii) Presence of parasitemia and fever on any day from day 4 to day 28, without having previously met the criteria of early treatment failure
  Late parasitological failure:
  Parasitemia after day 3 in the absence of fever (tympanic temperature <38.0°C) and without having previously met the criteria of early treatment failure or late clinical failure
  1. The treatment failure is defined according to the World Health Organization criteria [16] as the sum of early and late treatment failures.