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Table 1 Inclusion criteria by referral source in the START trial of multisystemic therapy

From: Evaluation of multisystemic therapy pilot services in the Systemic Therapy for At Risk Teens (START) trial: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Referral source Inclusion criteria specific to the sourcea
Children’s services • Designated as ‘child in need’ where this is associated with antisocial behaviour on the part of the adolescent
• Exhibiting extremely challenging behaviour by either persistent (weekly) and enduring (6 months or longer) violent and aggressive interpersonal behaviour and/or a significant risk of harm to self or to others (for example, self-harming, substance misuse, sexual exploitation, absconding)
Youth offending teams • At least one conviction within the past 12 months, or referral via a supervision order with multisystemic therapy as a specified activity
• A warning, reprimand and/or conviction on at least three occasions in the past 18 months
Child and adolescent mental health services • Current diagnosis of conduct disorder, substance misuse, major depression or anxiety
• History of at least one unsuccessful outpatient intervention
Either history of school exclusion or assessment as ‘child in need’
Educational services • Currently permanently excluded from school
  • History of having been excluded from at least one other school for aggressive conduct
  1. aAll participants must also meet the general inclusion criteria described in the text.