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Table 2 Mean (SD) outcome scores and ANCOVA-adjusted estimates of mean (95% confidence interval) differences between groups

From: Effectiveness of scalpel debridement for painful plantar calluses in older people: a randomized trial

Outcome Outcome score ANCOVA-adjusted estimates of the effects
  Real debridement Sham debridement Difference between groups t statistic P
(n= 41) (n= 39) (95% confidence interval)a
Primary outcome:
Reduction in pain (mm on a visual analogue scale)
Baseline 54.6 (21.0) 47.3 (20.8)    
Immediately post-intervention 16.0 (16.4) 19.7 (19.1) -6.0 (-13.6 to 1.7) -1.555 0.124
1-week post-intervention 12.7 (12.9) 19.1 (23.4) -7.2 (-15.6 to 1.3) -1.685 0.096
3-weeks post-intervention 24.8 (20.0) 29.4 (26.7) -6.3 (-16.7 to 4.1) -1.213 0.229
6-weeks post-intervention 38.7 (31.4) 36.7 (30.6) -2.2 (-15.0 to 10.5) -0.347 0.730
Secondary outcomes:
Reduction in pain (mm on a visual analogue scale)
Baseline 54.6 (21.0) 47.3 (20.8)    
2-weeks post-intervention 16.9 (16.4) 23.0 (21.0) -7.0 (-15.4 to 1.4) -1.651 0.103
4-weeks post-intervention 31.4 (24.1) 35.8 (29.0) -6.8 (-18.3 to 4.8) -1.166 0.247
5-weeks post-intervention 40.7 (28.9) 38.1 (31.1) -0.4 (-13.3 to 12.6) -0.059 0.953
Peak plantar pressure (kg/cm2)
Baseline 2.2 (0.5) 2.4 (0.4)    
Immediately post-intervention 2.2 (0.5) 2.4 (0.4) 0.0 (-0.1 to 0.0) -1.091 0.279
6-weeks post-intervention 2.2 (0.5) 2.4 (0.4) 0.0 (-0.1 to 0.1) 0.106 0.916
Physical performance:
Maximum balance range (cm)
Baseline 12.0 (4.1) 11.1 (2.8)    
Immediately post-intervention 12.3 (3.4) 11.5 (3.6) 0.0 (-0.8 to 0.9) 0.082 0.935
6-weeks post-intervention 12.5 (3.4) 11.9 (2.8) 0.0 (-0.9 to 0.9) -0.095 0.924
Timed sit-to-stand test (s)
Baseline 14.2 (4.6) 14.5 (4.6)    
Immediately post-intervention 13.1 (3.7) 12.9 (3.5) 0.3 (-0.6 to 1.3) 0.725 0.470
6-weeks post-intervention 12.7 (3.0) 12.6 (3.5) 0.2 (-0.8 to 1.3) 0.475 0.636
Timed alternate step test (s)
Baseline 13.7 (4.4) 13.5 (3.8)    
Immediately post-intervention 12.4 (2.9) 12.4 (2.9) -0.2 (-0.9 to 0.5) -0.659 0.512
6-weeks post-intervention 12.4 (3.1) 12.4 (3.4) -0.1 (-1.1 to 0.8) -0.248 0.805
6-m walking test (s)
Baseline 6.1 (1.6) 6.7 (1.6)    
Immediately post-intervention 5.7 (1.3) 6.1 (1.3) -0.1 (-0.3 to 0.1) -0.687 0.494
6-weeks post-intervention 5.8 (1.3) 6.3 (1.6) -0.1 (-0.5 to 0.2) -0.821 0.414
  1. aA negative result favors the experimental group and a positive result favors the control group.