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Table 3 Sample size determination for endotoxin

From: Effects of probiotics in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Endotoxin baseline (U/L) Difference in Δ-value (probiotics –placebo) SD for change (common for both treatments) Correlation for 1 and 2 measurements Sample size (total) 2-tailed α: 0.05 Power: 80% Sample size (total) 2-tailed α: 0.05 Power: 90%
10 (± 6) −2 5.34 0.60 224 298
  −2 5.04 0.65 200 266
  −2 4.68 0.70 176 236
  −2 4.26 0.75 148 198
  −2 3.78 0.80 116 154
  −2.5 5.34 0.60 144 192
  −2.5 5.04 0.65 128 172
  −2.5 4.68 0.70 114 152
  −2.5 4.26 0.75 96 128
  −2.5 3.78 0.80 76 100
  −3 5.34 0.60 100 134
  −3 5.04 0.65 90 120
  −3 4.68 0.70 80 106
  −3 4.26 0.75 68 90
  −3 3.78 0.80 54 70
  −4 5.34 0.60 58 76
  −4 5.04 0.65 52 68
  −4 4.68 0.70 46 62
  −4 4.26 0.75 40 52
  −4 3.78 0.80 32 40
  1. Δ-value, mean change; SD, standard deviation.