Complete AERO graph for moxifloxacin in an anti-tuberculosis regimen. The graph shows 19 completed experiments across 12 years along with four contemplated future studies. The overall trend of study results was positive until the transition into phase 2 (x
1), when significant discordance (for example, w
1 and w
4) and inconsistency (that is, negative results in x
4 vs. positive results in x
5) began to emerge. Researchers must now decide how to proceed in the face of an equivocal state of total evidence: Investigate mechanisms of discordance between animal models and human trials (A); investigate drug interactions (B); further investigate efficacy and evaluate predictivity of specific phase 2 trial designs (C); or proceed to a decisive phase 3 effectiveness trial (D).