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Table 2 Identified outcomes for in-hospital management of COPD exacerbation

From: Eight-step method to build the clinical content of an evidence-based care pathway: the case for COPD exacerbation

· Readmission: 30-day, 3-month, 6-month, 1-year · Inhaled β-agonist therapy is required no more frequentlythan every four hours
· Number of hospital admissions
· Interval before next admission · Patient, if previously ambulatory, is able to cope with basic needsin his/her situation, in usual environment
· Frequency and severity of exacerbation
· Mortality: in-hospital, 30-day, 3-month, 6-month, 1-year · Patient is able to eat and sleep without frequent awakening by dyspnoea
· Survival: 1-year
· Length of stay (LOS) · Patient has been clinically sTable for 12 to 24 hours
· Level of understanding of inhaler therapy · Last measure of arterial blood gases (ABGs) were accepTableaccording to condition of the patient
· Compliance with home oxygen therapy
· Performance of physical exercise · Patient and/or home caregiver fully understands correct use of therapy:oral medication therapy, inhaler therapy, oxygen therapy if homeoxygen therapy
· Smoking status: 30-day, 3-month, 6-month, 1-year
· Symptoms of anxiety and depression
Patient, family, and physician are confident that the patient canmanage successfully
· Health-related quality of life (HRQL): symptoms, disability,morbidity and quality of life; psychological well-being) · Lung function parameters: forced expiratory volume in onesecond (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), inspiratory capacity
· Health status
· Quality-adjusted life expectancy measure (QALY) anddisability adjusted life years (DALY)
· Quality of sleep
· Functional capacity · Nutritional status
· Exercise capacity · Patients’ perception of coordination between hospital andhome healthcare
· Physical performance: 6-minute walking distance (6-MWD),20-MWD, shuttle walk test, maximum workload, treadmill time,maximum oxygen uptake, quadriceps strength, hand grip force,maximal inspiratory mouth pressure
· Patient satisfaction with therapy and care
· Adverse event related to regular clinical examination by an investigator
· Severity of breathlessness: dyspnea, symptoms at rest andduring exercise · Cost of illness (COI) analysis
· Absenteeism