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Table 1 Behavior change techniques (BCTs) used in the smoking-cessation consultations in this study

From: Physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation during pregnancy (LEAP) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Week Session number Session content BCTs used (Michie categoriesa)
1 Session 1 (1 week before quit day) Explain the treatment, including timing of quit RC4, BS4
Measure expired CO and explain purpose RC3
Assess and discuss current and past smoking behavior RI1
Identify reasons for wanting and not wanting to quit BM9
Assess current motivation/confidence for quitting R12
Discuss past attempts at quitting R13
Prepare for the quit attempt BM6, BS3
Discuss use of social support A2
Advise on reducing smoking cues BS8
Advise subject to note the times when they are likely to lapse BS6
Facilitate relapse prevention planning and coping BS2
Identify barriers to quitting and address these barriers BS1
Emphasize choice (for example, when the participants take their final smoke) RD2
Provide information about the consequences of smoking during pregnancy BM1, RC5
Explain about quitting abruptly, rather than cutting down BM10
For all sessions:  
Allow time for questions RC2
Summarize RC9
Use reflective listening RC7
Elicit participant’s views RC8
Build a general rapport RC1
Give praise for progress BM7
Tailor the interactions RD1
2 Session 2 (quit day) Look for reasons why the woman is a good prospect BM2, BM3
Explain about cigarette withdrawal symptoms and strategies for dealing with them RC6
Identify barriers to quitting and address these barriers BS1
Advise on avoiding social cues for smoking BS11
Advise on changing routine BS7
Advise on conserving mental resources BS10
Set graded tasks (for example, take 1 hour/day at a time) BS9
3 Session 3 (1 week after quit day) Check smoking status BS5
Assess withdrawal symptoms R14
Reassure about the norms for these symptoms RC10, BM5
Advise subject to monitor when they want to smoke BS6
Assess CO and give feedback about whether reading has reduced BM11, BM3
Discuss planning and coping strategies to prevent relapse BS2
If they, have relapsed ask them to commit to a new quit date BM6
Advise about use of NRT A1
Liaise with PCT about obtaining NRT A3
Encourage subject to see themselves as a non-smoker BM8
Remind them of lottery prize for attending all sessions BM7
4 Session 4 (2 weeks after quit day) onwards Assess CO BM11
Check smoking status BS5
If they are struggling offer further support from PCT A5
Discuss relapse prevention planning and coping strategies for after birth BS2, BM8
Emphasize importance of not having a single puff BM6
If subject has relapsed, set a new quit date, and review use of NRT A4
  1. CO, carbon monoxide; PCT, primary care trust; NRT, nicotine replacement therapy.
  2. a Michie categories are defined as follows.
  3. Specific focus on the target behavior (B) and maximizing motivation (M). BM1: provide information on consequences of smoking and smoking cessation. BM2: boost motivation and self-efficacy. BM3: Provide feedback on current behavior. BM5: provide normative information about others’ behavior and experiences: BM6: prompt commitment from the client there and then. BM7: Provide rewards contingent on effort or progress. BM8: strengthen ex-smoker identity. BM9: identify reasons for wanting and not wanting to stop smoking. BM10: explain the importance of abrupt cessation. BM11: measure CO levels.
  4. Maximizing self-regulatory capacity and skill (BS). BS1: facilitate barrier identification and problem-solving. BS2: facilitate relapse-prevention and coping. BS3: facilitate action-planning/develop treatment plan. BS4: facilitate goal-setting. BS5: prompt review of goals. BS6: prompt self-recording. BS7: advise on changing routine. BS8: advise on environmental restructuring. BS9: set graded tasks. BS10: advise on conserving mental resources. BS11: advise on avoiding social cues for smoking.
  5. Promoting adjuvant activities (A). A1: advise on stop-smoking medication. A2: advise on/facilitate use of social support. A3: adopt appropriate local procedures to enable clients to obtain free medication. A4: ask about experiences of stop-smoking medication that the smoker is using. A5: give options for additional and later support.
  6. General aspects of interaction focusing on delivery of the intervention (RD). RD1: tailor interactions appropriately. RD2: emphasize choice.
  7. General aspects of interaction focusing on information gathering (RI). RI1: assess current and past smoking behavior. RI2: assess current readiness and ability to quit. RI3: assess history of quit attempts. RI4: assess withdrawal symptoms.
  8. General aspects of interaction focusing on general communication (RC). RC1: build general rapport. RC2: elicit and answer questions. RC3: explain the purpose of CO monitoring. RC4: explain expectations regarding treatment program: RC5: offer/direct toward appropriate written materials. RC6: provide information on withdrawal symptoms. RC7: use reflective listening. RC8: elicit client views. RC9: summarize information/confirm client decisions. RC10: provide reassurance.