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Table 1 Exclusion criteria

From: Decreasing adrenergic or sympathetic hyperactivity after severe traumatic brain injury using propranolol and clonidine (DASH After TBI Study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Pre-existing condition


Heart disease


Cardiac dysrhythmia


Allergy to study drugs



Penetrating brain injury


Pre-existing brain dysfunction


Impending brain herniation


Craniectomy or craniotomy



Spinal cord injury


Myocardial injury


Severe liver disease


Current use of β-blocker and/or α2-agonist


Withdrawal of care expected in 24 h





Pregnant women


Unable to follow-up through final visit