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Table 3 Adherence to the 11 preferred practices stratified by trial stage and funding

From: Investigator experiences with financial conflicts of interest in clinical trials

Practices Trial Funding
  Overall Non-industry Industry Adherence to preferred practice (Non-industry vs. Industry)
  (N = 700) (N = 646) * (N = 460)  
  n(%) n(%) n(%)  
Trial Preparation Stage
Signed contracts reviewed by institution     
   Signed contracts 458 262 376  
No trials 13(3) 10(4) 10(3)  
Some trials 39(9) 21(8) 18(5)  
All trials § 374(82) 191(73) 330(88) Similar
Not sure 22(5) 32(12) 12(3)  
Did not answer 10(2) 8(3) 6(2)  
Signed contracts have restrictive confidentiality clauses     
   Signed contracts 458 262 376  
No trials § 54(12) 48(18) 28(7) Similar
Some trials 99(22) 35(13) 58(15)  
All trials 201(44) 77(29) 212(56)  
Not sure 94(21) 94(36) 72(19)  
Did not answer 10(2) 8(3) 6(2)  
Budgetary reviewed by a research ethics board or institution official     
   No trials 39(6) 49(8) 22(5)  
   Some trials 92(13) 56(9) 28(6)  
   All trials § 523(75) 487(75) 386(84) Similar
   Not sure 28(4) 38(6) 18(4)  
   Did not answer 18(3) 16(2) 6(1)  
Trials registered in trial registry since 2005     
   No trials 50(7) 56(9) 36(8)  
   Some trials 221(32) 173(27) 69(15)  
   All trials § 274(39) 254(39) 141(31) Similar
   Not sure 140(20) 138(21) 193(42)  
   Did not answer 15(2) 25(4) 21(5)  
Trial Conduct Stage
Funder owns study data     
   No trials § 258(37) 394(61) 52(11) Higher in non-industry
   Some trials 221(32) 42(7) 114(25)  
   All trials 107(15) 68(11) 172(37)  
   Not sure 87(12) 119(18) 114(25)  
   Did not answer 27(4) 23(3) 8(2)  
Investigator has access to data from all sites     
   No trials 80(11) 69(11) 61(13)  
   Some trials 191(27) 94(15) 108(23)  
   All trials § 265(38) 306(47) 99(22) Higher in non-industry
   Not sure 132(19) 147(23) 181(39)  
   Did not answer 32(5) 30(5) 11(2)  
Funder controls final decisions regarding:
   Study design     
No trials § 247(35) 366(57) 78(17) Higher in non-industry
Some trials 228(33) 46(7) 112(24)  
All trials 141(20) 118(18) 179(39)  
Not sure 63(9) 98(15) 84(18)  
Did not answer 21(3) 18(3) 7(2)  
   Data analysis     
No trials § 276(39) 397(61) 92(20) Higher in non-industry
Some trials 222(32) 37(6) 114(25)  
All trials 120(17) 109(17) 155(34)  
Not sure 61(9) 85(13) 92(20)  
Did not answer 21(3) 18(3) 7(2)  
   Data interpretation     
No trials § 300(43) 404(63) 103(22) Higher in non-industry
Some trials 207(30) 36(6) 111(24)  
All trials 106(15) 106(16) 126(27)  
Not sure 66(9) 82(13) 113(25)  
Did not answer 21(3) 18(3) 7(2)  
Trial Dissemination Stage
Funder controls final decision on content of submitted manuscripts     
   No trials § 368(53) 445(69) 124(27) Higher in non-industry
   Some trials 168(24) 37(6) 100(22)  
   All trials 49(7) 41(6) 70(15)  
   Not sure 88(13) 100(15) 157(34)  
   Did not answer 27(4) 23(4) 9(2)  
Completed manuscripts has ghost authorship     
   No trials § 450(64) 478(74) 147(32) Higher in non-industry
   Some trials 100(14) 35(5) 75(16)  
   All trials 5(1) 4(1) 8(2)  
   Not sure 117(17) 104(16) 220(48)  
   Did not answer 28(4) 25(4) 10(2)  
  1. Notes:
  2. * 646 investigators included 406 who had experience in both industry funding and non-industry funding trials and 240 who only had experience in non-industry funding trials. We defined non-industry funding as support from a government agency, hospital, university, or other non-profit source (e.g., a federal granting organization) and industry funding as support from a private for-profit corporation (e.g., pharmaceutical company).
  3. 460 investigators included 406 who had experience in both industry funding and non-industry funding trials and 54 who only had experience in industry funding trials.
  4. Question was related to 458 investigators who had signed contracts.
  5. § Rows indicated the proportion of investigators that reported full adherence to the specific preferred trial practice in all of their trials experience