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Table 1 Six cognitive and emotional function markers, and their contributing measures

From: A randomized controlled trial investigation of a non-stimulant in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ACTION): Rationale and design

Marker Summary definition Task Measure
1. Sustained attention (vigilance) To maintain attention over time during continuous and repetitive activities. Continuous performance task Reaction time, total errors
2. Impulsivity To initiate a behavior without adequate forethought; the inability to suppress automatic responses when they are inappropriate. Continuous performance task
Errors of commission
Errors of commission
3. Intrusions The repetition of erroneous responses, even in the absence of interfering stimuli. Maze
Switching of attention
Verbal memory recall
Overrun errors
Errors (digits and letters)
Total intrusion errors
4. Inhibition The inability to suppress task-irrelevant information. Verbal interference Errors (word), errors (color), errors (interference)
5. Response variability The consistency of response time. Continuous performance task
Variability of reaction time
Variability of reaction time
Emotional function:
6. Emotion identification The capacity to identify the facial expressions of basic emotion displayed by others. Emotion identification task Percentage correct, response time for each expression (fear, anger, sadness, happiness, disgust, neutral)
  1. See Williams et al. (2010) for more detail about the tasks [1].