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Table 2 Intracluster correlation coefficients and coefficients of variation for key perinatal indicators

From: Intracluster correlation coefficients and coefficients of variation for perinatal outcomes from five cluster-randomised controlled trials in low and middle-income countries: results and methodological implications

Project Country Perinatal Care Project Rural Bangladesh Ekjut Rural India City Initiative for Newborn Health Urban India MaiMwana Malawi MaiKhanda* Malawi
Neonatal mortality      
Neonatal deaths 314 518 127 187 357
Live births 8503 8819 8283 6688 12499
Neonatal deaths, % of live births 3.7 5.9 1.5 2.8 2.9
Neonatal mortality rate, per 1000 live births 37.0 58.7 15.3 28.0 28.6
Stata-one way ICC stratum-averaged (95% CI) 0.00055 (0-0.00316) 0.00099 (0-0.00591) - 0.00247 (0-0.00605) 0.00034 (0-0.00346)
Stata-one way k 0.15 0.13 - 0.29 0.15
Donner and Klar ICC (95% CI) 0.00055(0-0.0024) 0.00099 (0-0.00442) 0.0004 (0-0.0041) 0.00309 (0-0.0070) 0.00094 (0-0.00263)
Donner and Klar k 0.12 0.13 0.16 0.33 0.18
Stillbirths      
Stillbirths 298 270 106 116 406
Births 8801 9089 9719 6804 12905
Stillbirths, % of births 3.4 3.0 1.1 1.7 3.1
Stillbirth rate, per 1000 births 33.9 29.7 10.9 17.0 31.5
Stata-one way stratum-averaged ICC (95% CI) 0.00000 (0-0.00224) 0.00012 (0-0.00307) - 0.00000 (0-0.00148) 0.00206 (0-0.00590)
Stata one way k 0.00 0.06 - 0.00 0.25
Donner and Klar ICC (95% CI) 0.00000 (0-0.00062) 0.00012 (0-0.00250) 0.0013 (0-0.0055) 0.000 (0-0.0015) 0.00242 (0.00002-0.00482)
Donner and Klar k 0 0.06 0.34 0.00 0.27
Maternal mortality      
Maternal deaths 19 68 21 32 42
Livebirths 8503 8819 8283 6710 12499
Maternal deaths, % of live births 0.22 0.77 0.25 0.48 0.33
Maternal mortality ratio, per 100 000 livebirths 223.4 771.1 219.8 476.9 336
Stata-one way ICC (95% CI) 0.00008 (0-0.00014) 0.00051 (0-0.00382) - 0.00000 (0-0.00150) 0.00031 (0, 0.00172)
Stata-one way k 0.19 0.26 - 0.00 0.10
Donner and Klar ICC (95% CI) 0.00005 (0-0.00082) 0.00071 (0-0.00383). 0.0034 (0-0.010) 0.000 (0-0.0015) 0.00333 (0.00044-0.00622)
Donner and Klar k 0.16 0.30 1.16 0.00 0.99
Four antenatal check-ups (ANC)      
Mother received 4 or more ANC check-ups %, (N) 15.1% (8189) 23.4% (8867) 84.2% (7834) 26.6% (6436) Not collected
Stratum-averaged ICC (95% CI) 0.04849 (0-0.18522) 0.15444 (0.30298-0.31837) 0.0211 (0-0.06073) 0.03010 (0.00398-0.05623) -
K 0.52 0.71 0.06 0.29 -
Skilled birth attendance      
Births attended by a nurse or doctor % (N) 15.2% (8801) 23.3% (9089) 87% (7834) 41.9% (6788) 52.9% (12853)
Stratum-averaged ICC (95% CI) 0.03233 (0.00831-0.00319) 0.04103 (0.00594-0.14733) 0.02522 (0-0.07051) 0.15243 (0.04186-0.26300) 0.12699 (0.06411, 0.18926)
K 0.42 0.36 0.06 0.46 0.34
Postnatal check-up      
Infants received a postnatal check-up % (N) 20.9% (8128) 6.3% (8301) 56.5% (7711) 30.9% (5949) -
Stratum-averaged ICC (95% CI) 0.03558 (0-0.12604) 0.01873 (0-0.05687) 0.01566 (0-0.04627) 0.23066 (0.07948-0.38185) -
K 0.36 0.52 0.11 0.72 -
Exclusive breastfeeding (1 st 6 weeks)      
Infants exclusively breastfed for the first 6 weeks % (N) 62.6% (8128) 62.3% (8301) 64.7% (7711) 9.2% (3749)** -
Stratum-averaged ICC (95% CI) 0.01286 (0-0.04821) 0.09163 (0.0006-0.23459) 0.01341 (0-0.04062) 0.03746 (0.00351-0.07140) -
K 0.08 0.23 0.09 0.61 -
Uptake of antenatal HIV testing      
Uptake of HIV testing % (N) - - - 39.2% (6624) -
ICC (95% CI) - - - 0.05457 (0.00950-0.09964) -
K - - - 0.29 -
Use of insecticide-treated bednets during pregnancy      
Use of insecticide-treated bednets & (N) - - - 48.1% (6678) -
ICC (95% CI)   - - 0.06059 (0.01105-0.11013) -
K   - - 0.26 -
  1. ICC: intracluster correlation coefficient; k: coefficient of variation.
  2. * MaiKhanda data are provisional as verification of deaths and follow-up of missing women are still ongoing.
  3. ** MaiMwana collected data on exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life.