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Table 1 Characteristics of studies used, prevalence, and rates, for key perinatal indicators from 5 community-based cluster RCTs

From: Intracluster correlation coefficients and coefficients of variation for perinatal outcomes from five cluster-randomised controlled trials in low and middle-income countries: results and methodological implications

Project Country Perinatal Care Project Rural Bangladesh Ekjut Rural India City Initiative for Newborn Health Urban India MaiMwana Malawi MaiKhanda* Malawi
Study location Three districts: Bogra, Maulvibazaar and Faridpur Three districts of Jharkhand and Orissa: Keonjhar, West Singhbhum and Saraikela Mumbai municipality Mchinji district Three districts: Lilongwe, Salima and Kasungu
Period for which data are included 1st Feb 2005 - 31st Dec 2007 1st July 2005 - 30th June 2008 1st October 2005 - 30th September 2008 1st January 2005 - 31st January 2009 (study is ongoing) 1st July 2008 - 31st July 2010 (study is ongoing)
Estimated population 478 000 228 000 280 000 180 000 312 000
Design Two-by-two factorial cluster RCT Cluster RCT Cluster RCT Two-by-two factorial cluster RCT Two-by-two factorial cluster RCT
Stratification By district (3 strata) By district (3 strata) By municipal ward (6 strata) None None
Cluster characteristics Villages making up a union 8-10 village with residents classified as tribal or OBC 1000-1500 households in slum areas Aggregated villages and group village headman areas Aggregated villages and group village headman areas in the catchment area of one Health Centre/Dispensary
Total number of clusters (Number included in this study)** 18 (5) 36 (18) 48 (24) 48 (12) 76 (30)
Annual births per cluster: Mean (SD) 587 (123) 171 (38) 131 (61) 139 (25) 143 (61)
Mean cluster population (SD, min, max) 27953 (5953, 15441-35110) 6338 (2101, 3605-7467) 5865 (1077, 4310-7750) 3958 (404, 3068-4645) 3934 (1332, 2121-8558)
Crude birth rate*** 20.8 28.1 22.3 35.1 35.0
  1. * MaiKhanda data are provisional as verification of deaths and follow-up of missing women are still ongoing.
  2. **These are 'pure' control clusters. In the case of factorial designs, none of the interventions tested was being implemented in these clusters.
  3. *** Number of live births per 1000 population during study period. We chose to use population estimates at the mid-point of trials as the denominator.