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Table 1 Main theories underpinning the structured group education self-management approach

From: The Reversal Intervention for Metabolic Syndrome (TRIMS) study: rationale, design, and baseline data

Theory Key elements
Common sense model People tend to conceptualise a health threat/problem according to 5 domains:
  Identity; Cause; Timeline; Consequences; Control/cure
  Important to elicit these beliefs as thought to influence coping and self-care behaviour
  Influenced by social and cultural factors
  Health information needs to be aimed at targeting all 5 domains. If not:
  Individual is likely to acquire the missing information from another source
  Risk of forming spurious health beliefs
  Could negatively impact subsequent coping behaviour
Dual process theory Systematic processing of information is encouraged
  Individual's are encouraged to take an active role in their learning and work things out and ask questions
  The educator does not lecture or dictate but uses open questions to elicit information
  Active learning requires recipient to make more effort. However:
  Results in individual's making a stronger link between theoretical concepts and their personal situation
  Attitude change generally lasts longer when produced by systematic processing
Social cognitive (learning) theory Behavioural change is influenced by an individual's:
  Sense of control or perceived self-efficacy
  Expectancies about outcomes of personal actions
  Social modelling of knowledge and competencies
  People learn from interaction with others.
  Helps a person to realise what they already know
  Cultivates new competencies
  Instils behavioural outcome expectations
  The educator supports individuals to put the elements in place and move forward
  1. References: Common sense model [26]; Dual process theory [25]; Social cognitive (learning) theory [24]