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Table 1 Study outcomes

From: A cluster randomised controlled trial of the community effectiveness of two interventions in rural Malawi to improve health care and to reduce maternal, newborn and infant mortality

  Women's groups Volunteer infant feeding and care counsellors
Primary outcomes ▪ Maternal mortality
▪ Perinatal mortality
▪ Neonatal mortality
▪ Infant mortality
▪ Rates of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in the first six months
▪ Infant mortality
Secondary outcomes ▪ Recognition of high-risk symptoms and signs: failure to feed, breathlessness, floppiness.
▪ Changes in caretaker practices: hygiene behaviours, use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs), early and exclusive breastfeeding and decreased use of pre-lacteal feeds
▪ Changes in care-seeking behaviour: antenatal care (use of malaria prophylaxis in pregnancy, tetanus toxoid), delivery (facility-based, skilled attendant, use of safe delivery kit), uptake of PMTCT (VCT, nevirapine for mother and baby), postnatal care (check-ups for mother and baby, infant vaccinations), referral patterns.
▪ Maternal and infant morbidity (breast problems, fever, diarrhoea, etc.)
▪ Changes in caretaker practices: EBF (duration of EBF, time to first feed, use of pre-lacteals, time to weaning), management and treatment of breast problems, recognition of danger signs, birth preparedness (clean razor, clean plastic sheet, soap, thread), family planning (including use of condoms)
▪ Changes in care-seeking behaviour: uptake of PMTCT (awareness, VCT, nevirapine for mother and baby, expressing breastmilk, early cessation of breastfeeding), uptake of vaccination services (3 doses pentavalent and 4 doses polio by 6 months
• Neonatal mortality
• Maternal and infant morbidity (breast problems, fever, diarrhoea, growth etc.)