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Table 3 Study instruments used to measure the outcomes

From: Study protocol: home-based telehealth stroke care: a randomized trial for veterans

1. FONEFIM
Motor subscale of the Telephone Version of the Functional Independence Measure
  The FONEFIM was developed as a telephonic alternative to the in-person, performance based Functional Independence Measure (FIM). It shows good concordance with the in-person FIM [6, 7]. The FONEFIM instrument includes 18-items, each with a maximum rating of 7 (complete independence) and a minimum rating of 1 (complete dependence). Thirteen of the 18-items assess motor functioning encompassing four categories (FIM-motor): 1) self-care (e.g., bathing); 2) sphincter control (e.g., bladder management); 3) mobility (transfers to bed/chair/wheelchair); and 4) locomotion (e.g., walking). The motor subscale scores range from 13 to 91.
2. LLFDI
Late Life Function and Disability Instrument
  The LLFDI was developed as a comprehensive assessment of function and disability in community-dwelling older adults [8]. The disability component assesses self-reported limitation (capability) and frequency (performance) of engaging in 16 major life tasks. The functional construct evaluates self-reported difficulty in performing 32 physical activities, comprising three domains: upper extremity, basic lower extremity, and advanced lower extremity. The raw scores from each item response are transformed into linear scaled scores (0 to 100) and accordingly summed to represent component and domain values.
3. FES
Falls Self Efficacy Scales
  The FES is a 10-item scale that assesses the impact of fear of falling on a person's confidence to perform everyday tasks. An example of one of the items is: "How confident are you that you can take a bath or shower without falling?" Study participants rate each question on a scale of 0 to 10, and the scores are aggregated to give a total score between 0 (low fall-related self-efficacy) and 100 (high fall-related self-efficacy, that is very confident of not falling). The FES has good internal consistency (α = .91), test-retest reliability (r = .71), and construct validity [9].
4. SSPSC
Stroke Specific Patient Satisfaction with Care
  The SSPSC uses 15 items to assess three dimensions of satisfaction (nine items on hospital care, four items on home-based care, and two items on overall care) [10]. Each of the 15 items is scored using a Likert scale ranging from 1-4.