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Table 1 Evaluation Measures in Taking Action Together

From: Taking Action Together: A YMCA-based protocol to prevent Type-2 Diabetes in high-BMI inner-city African American children

   Measurement Procedure &/or reference
Anthropometry (child)
   Waist & hip circum and ratio With plastic non-elastic tape [50]
   Weight, height, BMI and BMIz Wt: digital electronic scale, Ht: portable stadiometes, BMIz Calc [13]
   % Body fat BIA [50], % Body Fat Horlick's equation [51, 52]
Glucoregulation (Child)
   Fasting Glucose, Insulin Commercially available kits [50]
   HOMA-IR Calculation of insulin resistance [14]
   HbA1c, C-Peptide, NEFA HbA1c [19, 20]; C-Pep & NEFA, (Linco & Wako kits).
   Acanthosis nigricans Appearance of skin on back of neck with 0-4 scale of severity [53]
Diet (child)
   Dietary intakes Food diary [54, 55]; average intake and servings [36]
   Dietary habits & Nutrition knowledge After-School Student Questionnaire self-efficacy [50, 56]
Physical Activity and Fitness (child)
   Physical activity & fitness 3-day PA diaries [55], Lap run [57]
   PA habits & knowledge California Dept. of Education's Healthy Kids Survey [58]
   Athletic competence Harter self-perception profile for children [59]
Self efficacy
   Diet self-efficacy ASSQ self-efficacy questions [56]
   PA self-efficacy Child's Self-Assessment for Physical Activity (CSAAPA) [57, 60]
Self-esteem & Body Image (child)
   Self-worth & social acceptance Harter self-perception profile for children [59]
   Body satisfaction Validated in African American adults [61], modified [62]
   Self-esteem Behavioral Assessment System for Children, BASC-2 [34], child report
Behavior and Communications (child)
   Conduct problems & activities BASC-2 [34], parent report and child report
   Communication & social skills BASC-2 [34]; parent and child report
Adult and Family Assessments
   Family food behaviors Shopping, meal preparation and family eating [63]
   Change for diet and PA Fruit & vegetables [64], avoidance of high-fat [64, 65], exercise [66]
   Family PA habits & weight Family member's habits, duration of activity, and prevalence of overweight [50]
Additional Potential Confounding Variables
   Family environment & SEI Moos Family Environment Scale [67], Socioeconomic index [63]
   Family & Intrauterine history of T2DM American Diabetes Association instrument [68]
   Polyovarian syndrome (female child participants only) [50]
   Pubertal stage Estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone [50, 69]