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Table 4 Presentation of results in the Results section and abstract for studies reporting adjusted analysis

From: Reporting on covariate adjustment in randomised controlled trials before and after revision of the 2001 CONSORT statement: a literature review

Year of Publication

Results Section

Abstract

 

2000

(n = 54)

2006

(n = 89)

P-value

2000

(n = 71)*

2006

(n = 101)

P-value

Summary statistics for each group

  

0.7

  

0.5

   Unadjusted only

42 (78%)

70 (80%)

 

26 (37%)

45 (44%)

 

   Adjusted only

6 (11%)

12 (14%)

 

3 (4%)

5 (5%)

 

   Both

4 (7%)

3 (3%)

 

0

0

 

   None/not clear

2 (4%)

3 (3%)

 

42 (59%)

51 (51%)

 

Confidence interval/SE within group

  

0.2

  

1.0

   Unadjusted only

12 (22%)

11 (13%)

 

2 (3%)

2 (2%)

 

   Adjusted only

6 (11%)

10 (11%)

 

2 (3%)

4 (4%)

 

   Both

1 (2%)

0

 

0 (%)

0

 

   None/not clear

35 (65%)

67 (76%)

 

67 (94%)

95 (94%)

 

Treatment effect

  

0.4

  

0.1

   Unadjusted only

5 (9%)

5 (6%)

 

3 (4%)

5 (5%)

 

   Adjusted only

17 (31%)

35 (39%)

 

5 (7%)

19 (19%)

 

   Both

4 (7%)

12 (13%)

 

1 (2%)

1 (1%)

 

   None/not clear

28 (52%)

37 (42%)

 

62 (87%)

76 (75%)

 

Confidence interval/SE of treatment effect

  

0.6

  

0.4

   Unadjusted only

6 (11%)

5 (6%)

 

2 (3%)

6 (6%)

 

   Adjusted only

16 (30%)

24 (27%)

 

3 (4%)

17 (17%)

 

   Both

4 (7%)

10 (11%)

 

1 (2%)

1 (1%)

 

   None/not clear

28 (52%)

49 (56%)

 

65 (91%)

77 (76%)

 

P-value for treatment effect

  

0.2

  

0.2

   Unadjusted only

9 (17%)

8 (9%)

 

9 (13%)

13 (13%)

 

   Adjusted only

27 (50%)

52 (59%)

 

13 (18%)

30 (30%)

 

   Both

7 (13%)

17 (19%)

 

0

2 (2%)

 

   None/not clear

11 (20%)

11 (13%)

 

49 (69%)

56 (55%)

 
  1. *13 studies did not report the selected outcome in abstract
  2. 2 studies did not have abstract and 10 studies did not report the selected outcome in the abstract