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Table 1 Definitions of some types of reporting bias1

From: Reporting bias in medical research - a narrative review

Type of reporting bias Definition
Publication bias The publication or non-publication of research findings, depending on the nature and direction of the results
Time lag bias The rapid or delayed publication of research findings, depending on the nature and direction of the results
Multiple (duplicate) publication bias The multiple or singular publication of research findings, depending on the nature and direction of the results
Location bias The publication of research findings in journals with different ease of access or levels of indexing in standard databases, depending on the nature and direction of results
Citation bias The citation or non-citation of research findings, depending on the nature and direction of the results
Language bias The publication of research findings in a particular language, depending on the nature and direction of the results
Outcome reporting bias The selective reporting of some outcomes but not others, depending on the nature and direction of the results
  1. 1Table 10.1.a, Chapter 10 of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions [2]. © The Cochrane Collaboration. Reproduced with permission.