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Table 1 Inclusion Criteria

From: Effectiveness of focused structural massage and relaxation massage for chronic low back pain: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Inclusion criteria Rationale Source*
Continuing member of Group Health Defined population that is easy to identify, recruit and follow-up and who have been evaluated by a Group Health physician A, TI
20 through 64 yrs of age Chronic low back pain in children results from different causes than those we are studying; Older people have higher risk of undiagnosed serious conditions causing low back pain A
At least one primary care visit for back pain within the past 3-12 months Efficient method for identifying people who may have chronic low back pain A
Non-specific, uncomplicated low back pain, i.e., these ICD-9 codes: These codes are consistent with low back pain that is uncomplicated and mechanical in nature A
724.2 Lumbago
724.5 Backache, unspecified
724.8 Other symptoms referable to back
846.0-9 Sprains and strains, sacroiliac
847.2 Sprains and strains, lumbar
847.3 Sprains and strains, sacral
847.9 Sprains and strains, unspecified site of the back
Physician willing to have patients included in the study Research policy **
Lives or attends primary care clinic within 45 minutes travel time from a study massage therapist Maximize compliance with treatment protocol requiring 10 visits A
  1. *A = Automated visit data; TI = Telephone interview
  2. ** = determined by letter to physician before the sample identification