Skip to main content

Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 2 Summary of Fagerstrom & Hughes review of the safety of smoking and concomitant NRT use[37]

From: Rapid reduction versus abrupt quitting for smokers who want to stop soon: a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial

Study reviewed NRT treatment given Blood nicotine concentrations Safety conclusions
Foulds et al, 1992 16+ cigarettes per day (cpd) & 15 milligram (mg) transdermal patch (TP) over 16 hrs Baseline: 37 nanograms per millilitre (ng/ml), Placebo: 36 ng/ml, 15 mg TP: 44 ng/ml. Participants experienced almost no subjective toxic effects whilst wearing the patch
Pickworth, Bunker & Henningfield, 1994 13+ cpd & 22 mg, 44 mg TP over 24 hrs Baseline: 30 ng/ml, Placebo: 19 ng/ml,
22 mg TP: 39 ng/ml,
44 mg TP: 63 ng/ml.
No adverse subjective experiences were reported.
Mahmarian et al, 1997 8+ cpd & 14 mg TP over 24 hrs Baseline 16 ng/ml, 14 mg TP: 24 ng/ml, 21 mg TP: 30 ng/ml. Only adverse effects noted were nausea & vomiting in 2 patients.
Zevin, Jacob & Benowitz, 1998 Smoking ad libitum & 21 mg, 42 mg, 63 mg patch over 8 hours Placebo: 20 ng/ml, 63 mg TP: 60 ng/ml. No additional haemodynamic effects of TP on heart rate, blood pressure, noradrenaline, white blood cell count, fibrinogen, haematocrit, cortisol, or lipids. No adverse reactions.
Carpenter et al, 2000 11+ cpd & TP, gum or inhaler Lower than 22 mg TP: 54% increase, Higher than 22 mg TP: 190% increase. Number of cpd reduced by 43% and CO by 31%.