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Table 3 Re-analysis of original trial data in trials showing evidence of an effect on the final outcome.

From: How do multi-stage, multi-arm trials compare to the traditional two-arm parallel group design – a reanalysis of 4 trials

one-sided significance ICON4 RE01 FOCUS A vs C
level at stage 1 δ I HR decision δ I HR decision δ I HR decision
0.5 1 0.553 1 0.683 1 0.821
0.4 0.964 0.624 0.964 0.729 0.961 0.789
0.3 0.936 0.760 0.924 0.660 0.930 0.921
0.2 0.911 0.737 0.902 0.649 0.902 0.824
0.1 0.885 0.760 0.874 0.674 0.874 0.840
  1. δ I gives the cut-off hazard ratio for the intermediate outcome at a given one-sided significance level, HR gives the observed hazard ratio at that point in time, denotes that the trial would have been correctly carried on to the next stage, ✗ denotes that the trial would have been incorrectly stopped at stage 1
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