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Table 1 The Standardization of TCM Differentiation.

From: Study on the evaluation of the clinical effects of traditional chinese medicine in heart failure by complex intervention: protocol of SECETCM-HF

  Qi yang deficiency Qi yin deficiency
Main symptoms Palpitation, shortness of breath, tired and fatigue
Secondary symptoms Spontaneous perspiration, aversion to cold and cold limbs, anorexia and abdominal distension, loose stool, soreness and lumbago, dizziness and amnesia, pale complexion, dark pale tongue or pale and corpulent tongue with teeth prints, deep slow or irregularly intermittent pulse. Spontaneous/night perspiration, dizziness and restlessness, dry mouth, dark red zygoma, red tongue with little coating, thready and rapid pulse or irregularly intermittent pulse.
Combined syndromes 1. Blood stasis: Dull pain on the chest, cyanotic lips, raised jugular venous pressure, dark or purple tongue with petechia, and hesitant pulse.
  2. Phlegm retention: Swelling face and limbs or other parts of body, oliguria, chest fullness, cough with sputum, white and slippery tongue coating
  1. P.S. If the patient has the main symptom, two or more secondary symptoms with the proper tongue and pulse characters, and either one or two item of the combined symptoms, he/she can be diagnosed as heart failure disease with certain TCM syndrome.