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Table 2 Study characteristics of RCTs

From: Does the Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion polymorphism modify the response to ACE inhibitor therapy? – A systematic review

Study Population ACE intervention Control intervention Mean follow up Additional interventions Outcomes
Perna 1999 [24] 212 (87 DD/ 99DI /26 II)
Caucasians, mean age of 50 years, with non- diabetic proteinuric chronic nephropathies: (urinary protein excretion> 1 g/24 h for last 3 months and creatinine clearance of 20 – 70 mL/min/1.73m2)
Ramipril 1.25, increased to 2.5 or 5 mg/d Placebo or conventional treatment 30.3 months Conventional treatment for chronic nephropathy Blood pressure, proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, end stage renal disease
Van Geel 2003 [22] 86 (20 DD/ 43 DI/ 23 II)
Caucasians, mean age of 62 years, undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery; able to take the study drug for at least seven days before surgery
Quinapril 40 mg/d Placebo 12 months Aspirin, coumarin-derivatives (anticoagulants), β- blocker, Ca+2 channel, nitrates Plasma ACE activity
Okamura 1999 [21] 97 (16 DD/26 DI/36 II)
Asians, mean age of 63 years, with stable angina pectoris undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
Imidapril 5 mg/d Placebo 3–6 months Aspirin and warfarin Minimal lumen diameter of coronary artery (net gain (mm), diameter stenosis %, late loss (mm) and loss index)
Penno 1998 [23] N = 530 (137 DD/296 DI /77 II)
Caucasians, mean age of 53, diabetes with normo- and microalbuminuria, diastolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg and > 75 mmHg, systolic blood pressure < 155 mmHg
Lisinopril, 10–20mg/d Placebo 24 months Glycaemic control Proteinuria
Hernandez 2000 [25] N= 52 (25 DD/DI and 17 II)
Caucasians, mean age of 47, patients with renal transplantation, Stable renal function (creatinine clearance < 2.5 mg/dL for more than 6 months), absence of renal artery stenosis or chronic allograft nephropathy, no renovascular hypertension, absence of proteinuria
Lisinopril, 10 mg/d Placebo 12 months Antithymocyte globulin, prednisone, cyclosporine, azathioprine Serum creatinine, left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular isovolumetric relaxation time, left ventricular mass index
Hingorani 1997 [26] N = 125 (37 DD/70 DI/17 II)
Caucasians, mean age of 54, with untreated essential hypertension >160/90 (mainly primary care referrals
Captopril (50 mg/d), Enalapril (10 mg/d), Lisinopril (10 mg/d), Perindopril (4 mg/d) Placebo 4 weeks Ca+2-channel blocker Blood pressure
Kventy 2000 [27] N = 57 (17/DD/ 24 DI /16 II)
Caucasians, mean age of 45, with diabetes > 5 years, no microalbuminuria < 20 ug/min, albumin creatinine ratio < 2.5 mg/mmol, normal serum creatinine and urine sediment
Perindopril, 4 mg/d Placebo 24 months None Albumin/creatinine ratio, blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate
Meurice 2001 [28] N = 91 (only DD)
Caucasians, mean age of 85, after coronary stent implantation
Quinapril 40 mg/d Placebo 6 months Aspirin (75–300 mg for 6 months), ticlopidine (500mg for 1 months) Minimal luminal diameter of coronary artery (restenosis)
Pedersen 1997 [30] N = 56 (14 DD, 26 DI,16 II)
Caucasians, mean age of 68, after acute myocardial infarction and moderate to severe left ventricular dysfunction (2–6 days after myocardial infarction)
Trandolapril, 4 mg/d Placebo 12 months None Tissue-type plasminogen activator [30]32 and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) ACE activity
Pinto 1995 [31] N = 96 (34 DD/DI and 62 II)
Caucasians with first anterior myocardial infarction, treated with thrombolytic therapy (streptokinase intravenously)
Captopril 75 mg/d Placebo 12 months Streptokinase administration (1500000U)
Nitrates, Ca+2 channel blocker, β- blocker, aspirin, diuretics
End-systolic and end-diastolic volume
Okumura 2002 [29] N = 100 (21 DD/22 DI/49 II)
Asians, mean age of 64, after coronary artery stent implantation
Quinapril 10–20 mg/d Placebo 6 months Ca+2 channel blocker, β- blocker, nitrates, aspirin, ticlopidine Minimal lumen diameter of coronary artery (restenosis)