Acupuncture for menopausal vasomotor symptoms: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial
© Pirotta et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 22 January 2014
Accepted: 30 May 2014
Published: 12 June 2014
The Erratum to this article has been published in Trials 2015 16:89
Hot flushes and night sweats (vasomotor symptoms) are common menopausal symptoms, often causing distress, sleep deprivation and reduced quality of life. Although hormone replacement therapy is an effective treatment, there are concerns about serious adverse events. Non-hormonal pharmacological therapies are less effective and can also cause adverse effects. Complementary therapies, including acupuncture, are commonly used for menopausal vasomotor symptoms. While the evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture in treating vasomotor symptoms is inconclusive, acupuncture has a low risk of adverse effects, and two small studies suggest it may be more effective than non-insertive sham acupuncture. Our objective is to assess the efficacy of needle acupuncture in improving hot flush severity and frequency in menopausal women. Our current study design is informed by methods tested in a pilot study.
This is a stratified, parallel, randomised sham-controlled trial with equal allocation of participants to two trial groups. We are recruiting 360 menopausal women experiencing a minimum average of seven moderate hot flushes a day over a seven-day period and who meet diagnostic criteria for the Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnosis of Kidney Yin deficiency. Exclusion criteria include breast cancer, surgical menopause, and current hormone replacement therapy use. Eligible women are randomised to receive either true needle acupuncture or sham acupuncture with non-insertive (blunt) needles for ten treatments over eight weeks. Participants are blinded to treatment allocation. Interventions are provided by Chinese medicine acupuncturists who have received specific training on trial procedures. The primary outcome measure is hot flush score, assessed using the validated Hot Flush Diary. Secondary outcome measures include health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms, credibility of the sham treatment, expectancy and beliefs about acupuncture, and adverse events. Participants will be analysed in the groups in which they were randomised using an intention-to-treat analysis strategy.
Results from this trial will significantly add to the current body of evidence on the role of acupuncture for vasomotor symptoms. If found to be effective and safe, acupuncture will be a valuable additional treatment option for women who experience menopausal vasomotor symptoms.
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000393954 11/02/2009.
KeywordsAcupuncture Complementary medicine Menopause Hot flashes Vasomotor symptoms Quality of life Placebo
Three quarters of menopausal women experience vasomotor symptoms (VMS), or hot flushes and night sweats . VMS last an average of 5.2 years  but persist in 10% of women for 15 years or longer , and can cause significantly lowered quality of life due to social embarrassment, sleep deprivation, and physical discomfort . Risk factors for VMS include Caucasian ethnicity , increased body mass index (BMI) [6, 7], being a smoker , feeling stressed , financial impoverishment , and history of depression .
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a highly effective treatment for hot flushes, reducing incidence by up to 90% . However, HRT also increases the risk of thromboembolic disease , stroke , breast cancer  and possibly, dementia . Despite growing interest in non-hormonal pharmacological therapies such as psychotropic drugs and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), these are not as effective as HRT, and often cause troublesome adverse events [4, 13, 14]. Current evidence does not support the use of most complementary medicines (CM) for VMS, with popular treatments such as black cohosh shown to be ineffective [15, 16] and only modest benefits reported with soy . Yet, over half of the women surveyed in a 2006 Sydney study reported using CM for their menopausal symptoms, with acupuncturists being the second most popular therapists visited .
Acupuncture is a form of Chinese medicine that involves the insertion of fine needles into specific points on the surface of body known as acupuncture points, or acupoints . Acupuncture has an excellent safety profile when practised by qualified acupuncturists, with large prospective studies reporting that 90% of patients do not experience any adverse events, and that serious events are rare [20, 21].
Some progress has been made on understanding the neural mechanisms of acupuncture. Acupuncture analgesia is modulated by various transmitters, notably endogenous opioids, serotonin and noradrenaline [22, 23]. Acupuncture activates the ‘pain matrix’ - areas of the brain that have been shown to be consistently activated by noxious stimuli  - which includes the insula, an area that may be involved in the hot flush mechanism [25, 26].
Acupuncture for VMS
The thermoneutral zone is the tolerable temperature zone of the immediate environment within which changes in core body temperature do not cause compensatory sweating or flushing . Researchers propose that low serotonin levels and subsequent high noradrenaline levels during menopause narrow the thermoneutral zone in women experiencing VMS. Treatments that raise central serotonin levels, such as SSRIs or acupuncture, may reduce hot flushes by normalising the thermoneutral zone .
Two systematic reviews, published in 2009, found no evidence that acupuncture is effective for VMS, and recommended more rigorous research [27, 28]. Since then, four new clinical trials have published their results [29–32]. Two of these were pragmatic randomised trials and reported reductions of mean hot flush scores by 48 to 66% in treatment groups, compared with 28 to 29% in usual care groups (total n = 451) [29, 33]. However, a contentious issue in acupuncture research is the use of an adequate sham method in order to control for non-specific effects of acupuncture. One approach is insertive sham acupuncture, which may involve needling of acupuncture points that are considered to be ‘irrelevant’ in the treatment of the condition in question, needling non-acupuncture points, or superficial needling without eliciting a needle sensation. Insertive sham controls are increasingly considered to be an inferior acupuncture control method, with many large randomised controlled trials (RCTs) failing to show a difference between true and insertive sham acupuncture . Five such trials for VMS all failed to demonstrate a difference in mean hot flush scores between groups receiving true and insertive sham acupuncture [35–39]. Alternatively, non-insertive sham acupuncture controls for needling while simulating a needle-prick sensation using a blunt needle which does not penetrate the skin [40, 41]. These sham needles have been designed to shorten and ‘telescope’ into themselves, and have been validated as plausible simulations of acupuncture in several studies [41–45]. Three small trials reported true acupuncture to be more effective than non-insertive sham, with greater reductions in VMS frequency  and severity [30, 46]. Two of these trials were published after the 2009 systematic reviews were conducted [30, 32].
Collectively, the extant literature suggests that acupuncture treatment as practised in a community setting can relieve the burden of hot flushes and that the insertion of a needle may represent part of the specific effect of acupuncture on VMS.
Pilot study of acupuncture for VMS
In 2009, CE, MP and CX undertook a pilot project to assess feasibility of a trial of needle acupuncture compared with non-insertive sham needle for VMS. Twenty-seven women were randomised, and 20 completed the study. Study outcomes and participant feedback were used to modify the design of this current RCT protocol. Our method was feasible and acceptable to participants (results not published).
There is a need for safe and effective treatment of menopausal VMS, given the negative impact that hot flushes can have on quality of life. Acupuncture is a popular treatment amongst midlife women and has a favourable safety profile. However, evidence for its effectiveness in treating VMS remains inconclusive, although results from pragmatic studies and studies using non-insertive sham needles are promising. We have used findings from our feasibility study to inform the design of an adequately powered randomised sham-controlled trial using the non-insertive sham needle.
Aims and hypotheses
Our primary aim is to assess the efficacy of needle acupuncture in improving hot flush severity and frequency in menopausal women. Our hypothesis is that needle acupuncture will result in greater improvement in the severity and frequency of hot flushes compared to non-insertive sham acupuncture after ten treatments given over an eight-week period.
The trial, also known as the ‘Acupause’ trial, is a stratified, single (participant)-blind, parallel, randomised sham-controlled trial with equal allocation. The clinical trial results will be reported according to the CONSORT guidelines and the Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) guidelines [47, 48].
The trial is taking place in 15 private clinics of project acupuncturists (Chinese medicine practitioners) in Australia, located in metropolitan Melbourne, and regional Victoria, New South Wales, and the Gold Coast, Queensland, between September 2011 and October 2014.
The trial has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committees of the University of Melbourne (1135293 16/6/2011); Monash University (2011001242); RMIT University (1135293); and Southern Cross University (ECN-11-192). It has been registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRN12611000393954) and is funded by a Project Grant from the National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia (APP 1004406).
A total of 360 women in the late menopausal transition or postmenopause, who are experiencing hot flushes, are being recruited. A number of recruitment methods are used including (i) advertising through social media (Facebook), University staff and student newsletters, and a health register in a Melbourne tabloid newspaper; (ii) flyers at general practitioner, menopause outpatient and allied health surgeries and female-only fitness centres; (iii) various strategies through Jean Hailes for Women’s Health (http://www.jeanhailes.org.au), an Australian national not-for-profit education and research organisation focusing on women’s health (strategies include utilisation of the organisation’s research register, media releases, social networking connections, website features, and features in consumer and professional newsletters); and (iv) media exposure (radio, television and print).
Are deemed postmenopausal (at least 12 months past the final menstrual period) or in the late menopausal transition (Follicular Stimulating Hormone/FSH level of 25 IU or greater, amenorrhoea of ≥ 60 days and currently experiencing VMS) . (Women who have had a hysterectomy are included if an FSH level is greater than 25 IU and they are 51 years of age or older); and
Record a mean hot flush score of at least 14 over 7 days during the run-in period (equivalent to an average of seven moderately-severe hot flushes a day and assessed using a validated Hot Flush Diary) [50, 51]; and
Meet the criteria for the Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) diagnosis of Kidney Yin deficiency determined using a structured Chinese medicine history and examination . Women are included if they score higher for Kidney Yin deficiency than for Kidney Yang deficiency. See Table 1 for details of the standardised history and examination used.
Standardised Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) history and examination used in the Acupause study
Kidney Yin deficiency scale
Kidney Yang deficiency scale
Sensations of heat in the body with sweatinga
Dizziness or vertigo
Feelings of heat in the palms, soles and chest
Ache and soreness in the lower back
Dry mouth or dry hard stool
Frequency of micturition
Aching and soreness in the lower back and knees Dizziness or tinnitus
Low energy and pale complexion
Red tongue with scant coat
Pale tongue with thin coat
Rapid fine pulse
Sunken, fine pulse without force
Kidney Yin deficiency is the most common diagnosis made by TCM practitioners in menopausal women who present with hot flushes [53, 54]. We use standardised TCM diagnosis as an inclusion criterion for several reasons. In clinical practice it is usual for an acupuncturist to tailor an acupuncture point prescription to fit the diagnosis that is made after history and examination. However, individualisation of the acupuncture point prescription did not impact on treatment outcome in one pragmatic trial on acupuncture for VMS . By standardising this TCM diagnostic process, we are creating a homogenous sample according to TCM diagnosis, simplifying the treatment protocol, and ensuring our findings are applicable to both TCM and western medical settings.
Are younger than 40 years of age (therefore diagnosed as having Premature Ovarian Failure) or have previously been diagnosed with premature ovarian failure and are less than 50 years of age;
Have had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy;
Have any medical reason to be amenorrheic (for example pregnancy, hyperprolactinemia, Cushing’s syndrome);
Have poorly controlled hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism;
Are experiencing VMS that started or became worse after diagnosis of breast cancer or commencing treatment for breast cancer;
Are currently taking HRT, with the following washout periods to be observed: transdermal (four weeks), oral or intrauterine HRT (eight weeks), progestin implant/oestrogen injectable, phytoestrogen therapy (three months), oestrogen pellet/progestin injectable (six months);
Have ceased any other treatment for hot flushes within twelve weeks of screening (including complementary medicines);
Have commenced using any other pharmacological or complementary therapy for hot flushes in the past eight weeks;
Have commenced using vaginal oestrogen therapy in the past twelve weeks;
Are unable to read or write sufficiently in English to complete the outcome measures, which require a Grade 6 reading level;
Have had needle acupuncture treatment in the past two years;
Have relative contraindications to acupuncture (use of anticoagulant drugs, heart valve disease, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus);
Are unwilling or unable to attend for acupuncture/sham acupuncture for ten treatments over eight weeks; or
Are unable to give informed consent.
Changes to eligibility criteria after trial commencement
To facilitate recruitment within the funded study period, two changes were made to the original eligibility criteria. Originally, any previous acupuncture experience was an exclusion criterion. From October 2011, participants with previous acupuncture experience were deemed to be eligible, as long as the last needle acupuncture treatment was more than two years previously. Use of the Park Sham Device has been validated in non-acupuncture naïve participants [43, 55], and advice from the manufacturer was that broadening the inclusion criteria to non-acupuncture naïve participants was reasonable (personal communication, Dr Jongbae Park). Setting a two-year period since a participant’s last acupuncture experience was considered a long enough time frame to minimise familiarity to acupuncture practice.
In July 2012, in the light of emerging evidence and recommendations from the Stages of Reproductive Ageing (STRAW + 10) Workshop (Harlow, Gass et al. 2012), we expanded our criteria to include women in the late menopausal transition (a phase now known to be characterised by oestrogen deficiency and high risk of VMS), assessed using FSH testing.
Women recording an average of seven moderately-severe hot flushes a day over the seven- day period are then assessed for TCM criteria (tongue and pulse diagnosis) by a trained acupuncturist (either CE or a project acupuncturist). For quality assurance purposes, the first twenty potential participants’ tongues assessed are photographed after obtaining written consent and an expert Chinese medicine practitioner and researcher (CX) views the de-identified photographs to reconcile the diagnosis with the clinical picture. Thereafter, photographs are only taken of participants if their TCM diagnosis is unclear. Prior to randomisation, women are requested to provide written informed consent after discussing trial procedures and risks of acupuncture with a trained acupuncture researcher (CE/JS).
Providers and standardisation of the intervention
Fifteen project acupuncturists at 15 sites administer the study interventions. All acupuncturists have obtained a Bachelor degree in Chinese medicine, have five or more years of clinical experience and are registered with the Chinese Medicine Board of the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency.
To optimise fidelity of delivery of the intervention, project acupuncturists attend a two-hour training session delivered by the acupuncturist researcher (CE) who developed and administered the interventions during the pilot trial. Acupuncturists receive a detailed training manual and a DVD demonstrating the use of the Park Sham Device (sham needle). The training session includes an introduction to basic clinical research methods and a practical demonstration of the Park Sham Device, during which acupuncturists gain ‘hands-on’ experience on how to use the sham needle.
Either the acupuncturist researcher (CE) or a trained non-acupuncturist investigator (SM) in NSW and Queensland, visits project acupuncturists within a few weeks of their first study participant session to ensure protocol adherence. During this visit, a treatment is observed and feedback provided to the acupuncturist. De-identified photographs of the needling at interstate training sessions are Emailed to CE so that point location could be assessed.
Acupuncturists record details of each treatment on individual Case Report Forms, which are kept in a locked cupboard in the clinic and returned to the research team every six months.
The standardised treatment protocol is based on TCM principles and is designed to treat Kidney Yin deficiency. The protocol was developed by consensus between two practising acupuncturist researchers (CX and CE) after considering a textbook, literature review and expert opinions from three leading international acupuncture researchers with particular expertise in women’s health.
While the number of points for an adequate ‘dose’ of acupuncture is yet to be determined , this current study protocol follows the minimum protocols used in other positive studies of acupuncture for hot flushes. In particular the positive study by Nir et al. used an average of six points, and nine treatments were provided . A literature review suggests that at least ten treatments should be provided for hot flush treatment . The acupuncture points chosen for this trial are included in the group of eight core acupuncture points that were used in one pragmatic trial  which allowed for individualisation of the treatment protocol by acupuncturists. However, no relation was found between choice of particular acupuncture points and treatment outcome in that study, suggesting that point specificity may not be of relevance when using acupuncture to treat hot flushes.
All participants receive ten thirty-minute treatments over eight weeks, twice weekly in the first two weeks and weekly thereafter. Treatments are provided at no cost to participants. All attempts are made to minimise missed sessions and limit breaks between sessions to two weeks or less.
Acupoints used in the true acupuncture group in the Acupause study (Unilateral)
Acupoint (standard abbreviation/Chinese nomenclature)
Depth of insertion
Kidney 6 (KI6/Zhaohai)
In the depression below the tip of the medial malleolus
Tonifies Kidney Yin
up to 3 mm
Kidney 7 (KI7/Fuliu)
2 cun a directly above the acupoint Kidney 3 on the anterior border of the Achilles tendon. (Kidney 3 is located in the depression between the tip of the medial malleolus and the Achilles tendon)
Tonifies Kidney Yang and stops night sweating
up to 15 mm
Spleen 6 (SP6/Sanyinjiao)
3 cun directly above the tip of the medial malleolus
Nourishes Kidney, Heart and Liver Yin
up to 20 mm
Heart 6 (HT6/Yinxi)
When the palm faces upward, the point is on the radial side of the tendon of muscularis flexor carpi ulnaris, 0.5 cun above the transverse crease of the wrist
Together with KI7, stops night sweating
up to 3 mm
Conception Vessel 4 (CV4/Guanyuan)
On the anterior midline, 3 cun below the umbilicus
Strengthens the uterus, nourishes the kidneys
20 to 30 mm
Liver 3 (LR3/Taichong)
On the dorsum of the foot, in the depression distal to the junction of the first and second metatarsal bones
Subdues rising Liver Yang
7 to 12 mm
Points used in the sham acupuncture group in the Acupause study (bilateral)
Name given to point
Relationship to meridians and acupoints
2 cun a above and 5 cun lateral to the umbilicus
1 cun lateral to the Spleen meridian
Midway between the acupoints Lung 5 and Large intestine 11 on the cubital crease
On the bulge of the rectus femoris, 5 cun above the middle of the superior border of the patella
2 cun lateral and 3 cun proximal to
real acupoint Spleen 10
Information provided to participants about acupuncture
Participants are informed, during the process for obtaining informed consent, that there is a control group, referred to as a ‘placebo’ group, and that there is a 50% chance of being randomly allocated to this group or the true acupuncture group. All participants are told that the ‘placebo’ needles are designed to stimulate different nerves compared to the true acupuncture needles, and all participants are aware that ‘placebo’ treatment is not considered active treatment. If they specifically enquire, they are told that the acupuncturists remain blinded and receive a pre-specified pack of needles and instructions as to where to insert needles for each participant after randomisation.
Participants can withdraw from the trial at any time. The data collected up to the time of withdrawal will be included in the analysis unless participants specifically request for their data to be withdrawn, in which case any unprocessed data will be withdrawn from analysis. This has been made explicit in the Plain Language Statement and Consent Form. Should a participant withdraw, a detailed reason (if provided) is recorded in the trial database.
In order to avoid confounding the results of the trial, participants are asked to avoid commencing new pharmaceutical co-interventions for hot flushes during the intervention period, such as herbal treatments and HRT. If already on treatment for hot flushes, participants are requested not to discontinue this treatment during the trial.
Summary of measures collected as part of the Acupause study
Data collection instrument
Demographic information, risk factor for VMS
VMS frequency, severity and score
Seven-day day flush diary
Health-related Quality of life
Menopause-Specific Quality of life Questionnaire/MENQOL
Depression and anxiety measures
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale/HADS
Credibility and expectancy
Credibility Expectancy Questionnaire + additional question on binding
Primary outcome measure
The primary outcome measure is the hot flush score at end-of-treatment (EOT). EOT hot flush score is calculated from the seven-day HFD which participants commence immediately upon completing their final treatment. These diaries have been used in multiple trials of interventions, and have been shown to be a consistent and reliable method of evaluating change in VMS .
Participants note daily in the diary the number and severity (mild, moderate, severe and very severe) of hot flushes experienced over a twenty-four hour period for seven days. The pilot study showed that it was feasible and acceptable for women to complete the diary over seven days with minimal missing data. The HFD will be used to determine three specific measurements: 1) hot flush frequency; 2) hot flush severity; and 3) a hot flush score comprising both frequency and severity. These scores are calculated as follows:
Hot flush frequency = total number of hot flushes reported/Number of days reported
Hot flush severity = (1 × number of mild hot flushes + 2 × number of moderate hot flushes + 3 × number of severe hot flushes + 4 × number of very severe hot flushes)/Number of hot flushes reported
Hot flush score = (1 × number of mild hot flushes + 2 × number of moderate hot flushes + 3 × number of severe hot flushes + 4 × number of very severe hot flushes)/Number of days reported
Secondary outcome measures
Hot flush score at other time-points: the primary outcome measure is the hot flush score at the EOT; however, hot flush score will also be measured at four weeks to assess the intermediate effect of acupuncture and at three and six months to measure longer-term outcomes as recommended in the two recent systematic reviews [27, 28].
Health related quality of life: the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) is a validated measure of quality of life and clinical change during the menopausal transition and is specific to women in the first eight years post menopause . It consists of 29 items assessing four domains: VMS, physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, and urogenital/sexual symptoms.
Anxiety and Depression: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a validated widely-used 14-item self-report scale designed to briefly measure current anxiety and depressive symptoms in non-psychiatric hospital patients. It excludes somatic symptoms, therefore avoiding potential confounding factors . The HADS comprises two independent seven-item subscales for anxiety and depression. Anxiety has been demonstrated to be a predictor of a high placebo response in menopause studies .
Expectancy and beliefs about acupuncture: the Credibility/Expectancy Questionnaire is a validated, quick and easy-to-administer six-item scale for measuring treatment expectancy and rationale credibility for use in clinical outcome studies . This questionnaire is administered once, immediately after the first treatment.
Success of blinding: as surveys to measure the success of blinding may enhance participants’ focus on this, we measure this aspect immediately after the first treatment . There is currently no validated measure to assess blinding in acupuncture research. We will use the scale developed by Bang , which ranges from −1 (completely not blinded) to +1 (perfectly blinded).
Participants’ characteristics and risk factors for hot flushes
menopausal status - staging system recommended by the Stages of Reproductive Ageing Workshop ;
smoking status ;
physical activity ;
previous tubal ligation ;
history of depression ;
education level ;
information on previous use of acupuncture, including types of acupuncture used, date of last treatment, frequency of use, conditions treated, and perceived response to acupuncture
Data storage and access
All hard copy information that contains personal information on participants or that can be identified is stored in a secure locked cabinet. Electronic data that contains personal information or that can be identified is password-protected on a secure server and can only be accessed by authorised researchers. Information will be retained for a minimum of fifteen years after publication of results.
Sample size calculation
Sample size calculations are based on a two-sample t-test with 80% power and significance level at 5% for a two-sided test. We assumed conservatively that the mean hot flush score at baseline would be 14, the lowest possible entry score for the trial. Assuming a 50% relative reduction in the HF scores in the control group due to the placebo effect, which is the typical response reported in hot flush randomised controlled trials , we anticipate that women in the sham acupuncture group will have a mean hot flush score of 7 at EOT. To be clinically significant, we expect that women in the true intervention group to show at least 75% reduction in the total HF score from baseline, with a mean HF score of 3 at EOT. Based on these assumptions, 266 women (133 per trial group) will be needed to detect hot flush score difference of 4 (standard deviation (SD) = 11.6 ) between the two trial groups at EOT. This sample size is sufficient to detect a difference of 0.35 of 1 SD between the trial groups for the quality of life measures. Sample size was inflated to 360 women (180 per study group) to allow for attrition of 26% (experienced in the pilot study) at the measurement of the primary outcome at the EOT.
Randomisation and allocation concealment
Participants are randomly allocated to one of two trial groups: true acupuncture or sham acupuncture, using a computer-generated randomisation sequence, stratified by project acupuncturist using block sizes of either eight or twelve (with block sizes appearing in random order) within each stratum and an allocation ratio of 1:1. The research assistant responsible for allocating participants is not aware of the block sizes used. An independent researcher with no other involvement in the trial used this allocation sequence to create a password-protected electronic ‘spreadsheet’ which contains the covert allocation schedule. The principal investigator (MP) holds the randomisation schedule.
Implementation and allocation concealment
Upon confirmation of eligibility of women for the trial (that is, after completion of the baseline HFD and clinical confirmation of diagnosis of Kidney Yin deficiency), the unblinded research assistant (KN) uses the spreadsheet to randomly allocate participants to receive either real or sham acupuncture. The spreadsheet displays sequentially only the next treatment allocation.
The research assistant informs the relevant project acupuncturist of the allocation status by mobile phone text messaging, Email or fax, depending on the acupuncturist’s preference. Group allocation is indicated only by the list of acupuncture points for either real or sham acupuncture, to avoid unblinding should the participant inadvertently see the communication. As acupoints used for ‘needling’ in real and sham acupuncture groups are different, acupuncturists can easily identify group allocation from the list of points provided. This process can be cross-checked against the covert randomisation schedule code held by the principal investigator to ensure no corruption of the process has occurred. To prevent selection bias, all baseline information is collected prior to the acupuncturist being informed of the treatment allocation.
The research assistant responsible for randomisation (KN) and the project acupuncturists who deliver the treatment to the women are not blind to treatment allocation. Blinding of project acupuncturists is not possible because of the difference between real and sham acupuncture points used and the tactile difference between real and sham needling.
Participants and all other investigators are blinded, including the study statistician. As outcomes are self-assessed, outcome assessment is blinded. Data analysis will be performed where the treatment groups will be identified as Group A and B. The codes for the treatment groups will be revealed after the all outcome data collection is completed at six months.
Prior to providing consent to participate, participants are informed of potential adverse events from acupuncture. Common adverse events include fainting, drowsiness, tiredness, temporary increase in symptoms, bruising and soreness. A practitioner guide to preventing and managing common adverse events is provided in the Practitioner Training Manual. Participants report adverse events either to the project acupuncturist delivering the intervention or the acupuncturist researcher. The project acupuncturist refers to the acupuncturist researcher in the event of ongoing or unresolved concerns. Serious adverse events (defined as potentially life-threatening, permanently incapacitating or resulting in hospitalisation) are notified to the study chief investigator (MP) and the Human Research Ethics Committee within 24 hours. Informed by the pilot project, it is anticipated that telephone advice from a general practitioner (MP/CE) and/or acupuncturist researcher (JS) will be adequate in most cases. If participants require additional medical advice, they are directed to their general practitioner. The expert acupuncturist (CX), who chairs the Chinese Medicine Board in Australia, is also available for advice.
Participants who score higher than 15 on the baseline depression and/or anxiety scales will be contacted by a general practitioner investigator (CE/MP) to be assessed for suicide risk and referred to relevant services as required.
Both the relevant project acupuncturist and the participant complete an Adverse Event Form should the need arise. The form records the dates and times that the event began and resolved; a description of the event; the intensity of the event (mild/moderate/severe); an assessment of the possible relationship to acupuncture, on a four-point Likert scale ranging from ‘unrelated’ to ‘definitely related’; the outcome on a five-point Likert scale ranging from ‘completely resolved’ to ‘persistent’; and whether the event was considered serious (potentially life-threatening, permanent incapacitating or resulting in hospitalisation).
The Credibility/Expectancy Questionnaire, Case Report Form, TCM Diagnosis Form and Adverse Events Form are completed on paper copies. All other outcome measures, participant characteristics and risk factors for hot flushes are completed online using a survey management website (Survey Methods http://www.surveymethods.com), with paper copies available for those who prefer to use them. Online surveys have the advantage of minimising missing data if completion of survey questions is made mandatory prior to submitting the survey online. Range checks are also built into online surveys, and automated reminders are Emailed. The study acupuncturist and research assistant (CE and KN) oversee this data management. A reminder letter/Email is sent after two weeks, followed by a courtesy telephone call two weeks later by the research assistant should questionnaires not be returned. Details of treatment dates and follow-up are recorded in a custom-built password-protected database.
All paper-based data are entered into the same survey management website by staff blinded to group allocation at the University of Melbourne. Ten percent of all data entry will be audited by an independent investigator for quality assurance purposes.
Descriptive statistics will be used to summarise baseline measures and participant characteristics between the two trial groups and to assess for chance imbalance of important prognostic factors. Primary outcome is the hot flush score at EOT. Analysis will account for repeated outcome measures taken on the same women over 12 months and stratification by project acupuncturists. Mixed-effects linear regression model will be used to compare the continuous outcomes between the trial groups and marginal logistic regression model using generalised estimating equations with robust standard errors will be used for the binary outcomes. Where appropriate the baseline measure of the outcome will be included as a covariate in the regression model. In addition, factors strongly associated with the outcome and are found to be imbalanced between the trial groups at baseline will also be adjusted in the regression models. Estimates of the intervention effect will be reported as the difference in means between trial groups for continuous outcomes and odds ratios for binary outcomes, with respective 95% confidence intervals and P-values. Stata 13.0  will be used for the data analyses.
An intention-to-treat analysis strategy will be employed where all participants will be analysed in the trial group in to which they were allocated . In the first instance, we will strive to minimise the extent of missing outcome data for participants, where all efforts will be made to collect the primary outcome on participants who withdraw, discontinue their treatment or do not respond to the online survey. However, in the presence of incomplete data, information collected on the reasons for missing data will be used to inform the appropriate statistical analysis approach to handle the missing data. Sensitivity analyses that capture departures from the assumption of the missing data mechanism for the primary analysis will also be considered to assess the robustness of the results.
Additional secondary analyses are planned. These will include (1) exploring the effect acupuncture had on women’s quality of life, (2) identifying factors that are associated with a placebo response, (such as anxiety/depression levels and demographic characteristics such as socioeconomic status), (3) the association between expectancy and beliefs and women’s response to acupuncture treatment, and (4) the credibility of the Park Sham Device.
As acupuncture has an excellent safety profile, and is not considered an experimental treatment, no data monitoring committee is required.
Hot flushes are a common and potentially disabling symptom during the menopause. While HRT is an effective treatment, it does not suit all women either because of concerns over potentially serious adverse events, or because of relative contra-indications. Many women also prefer to use natural or complementary therapies where available. There is a paucity of effective and safe non-hormonal treatments for VMS. However, preliminary evidence suggests that acupuncture, a popular and safe treatment for a wide range of conditions, may be effective for VMS.
We are conducting a randomised sham-controlled trial on acupuncture for VMS, which builds on the results from our earlier pilot project during which feasibility of methods was demonstrated. This robustly designed study meets methodological benchmarks of adequate randomisation and allocation concealment procedures, blinding of outcome assessors and statisticians and utilising intention-to-treat analysis strategy. The trial method also allows for Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnosis in the eligibility criteria and a ‘dose’ of acupuncture reflecting clinical practice to ensure results are applicable to a broad range of health practitioners. The trial is appropriately powered to determine a clinically relevant treatment effect. Our results will determine the efficacy of acupuncture for treating VMS in postmenopausal women. In particular, we will assess the specific effect of insertion of the acupuncture needle and its contribution to the entire treatment effect.
Our results will inform women suffering with menopausal symptoms and both conventional and Traditional Chinese Medicine health care professionals on the potential role, if any, of acupuncture in the treatment of VMS. This will advance the field significantly and, if effective, will offer an important treatment option to reduce VMS and potentially improve quality of life in women at this important life stage. Future research may explore the optimal treatment regimen for acupuncture for VMS.
The trial has received funding and recruitment commenced in late 2011. At the time of submission of this protocol, project acupuncturists had been trained, participant enrolment was progressing well and data collection was well underway. Trial enrolment closed in March 2014. We anticipate that all data will be collected by late 2014.
MP - MS BS, M Med, FRACGP, DRANZCOG, PhD. CE - MB BS, B.Appl.Sci (Human Bio/Chinese Medicine), M Med, FRACGP, GradCertMedAcup. HT - MBBS, FRACP, PhD. PC - B Sc, GradDipEpi&Biostat, MSc(Stat), PhD. SF - BAppSc, MPH, PhD. SM - PhD BMed ND. CX - BMed, PhD.
body mass index
Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials
follicular stimulating hormone
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
Hot Flush Diary
hormone replacement therapy
Menopause-specific Quality of Life questionnaire
Standards for reporting interventions in acupuncture trials
randomised controlled trial
serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
Traditional Chinese Medicine
The study is funded by a project grant from the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Australia.
MP is supported by an NHMRC Career Development Fellowship.
CE is supported by an NHMRC Postgraduate Scholarship.
HT is supported by a NHMRC Practitioner Fellowship.
We thank the following people: our research assistants Kitty Novy, Mary Kyriakides and Melanie Charity for their hard work and dedication to the day-to-day running of the project; Melanie Gibson for assistance with recruitment and survey management; the staff at Jean Hailes for Women’s Health (especially Aleeza Zohar and James Shirvill) for assistance with recruitment; Annie Rahilly also for assistance with recruitment; Ben Metcalf for designing the randomisation spreadsheet; Dr Zhen Zheng, Dr Caroline Smith and Prof Lixing Lao for providing expert opinions on the treatment protocol; Johannah Shergis for acting as the acupuncturist researcher from January to August 2013; Vincent Cheong for producing the DVD on the Park Sham Device; Dr Vicki Kotsirilos for providing a consultation space for TCM interviews. Our thanks to the project acupuncturists: Nelson Alingcastre, Phil Baxter, Mary-Jo Bevin, George Dellas, Catherine Farchione, Lauren Lanzoni, Suzy McCleary, John McDonald, Janette Pannacio, Stephen Pate, Tina Song, Melanie Wells, Tanya Wilson, Richard Yates, Richard Zeng; and deep gratitude to the women involved in our study.
- Guthrie JR, Dennerstein L, Taffe JR, Lehert P, Burger HG: The menopausal transition: a 9-year prospective population-based study. The Melbourne Women’s Midlife Health Project. Climacteric. 2004, 7: 375-389. 10.1080/13697130400012163.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Col NF, Guthrie JR, Politi M, Dennerstein L: Duration of vasomotor symptoms in middle-aged women: a longitudinal study. Menopause. 2009, 16: 453-457. 10.1097/gme.0b013e31818d414e.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gracia CR, Freeman EW: Acute consequences of the menopausal transition: the rise of common menopausal symptoms. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2004, 33: 675-10.1016/j.ecl.2004.07.003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Archer DF, Sturdee DW, Baber R, de Villiers TJ, Pines A, Freedman RR, Gompel A, Hickey M, Hunter MS, Lobo RA, Lumsden MA, Maclennan AH, Maki P, Palacios S, Shah D, Villaseca P, Warren M: Menopausal hot flushes and night sweats: where are we now?. Climacteric. 2011, 14: 515-528. 10.3109/13697137.2011.608596.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Freeman EW, Sherif K: Prevalence of hot flushes and night sweats around the world: a systematic review. Climacteric. 2007, 10: 197-214. 10.1080/13697130601181486.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Whiteman MK, Staropoli CA, Langenberg PW, McCarter RJ, Kjerulff KH, Flaws JA: Smoking, body mass, and hot flashes in midlife women. Obstet Gynecol. 2003, 101: 264-272. 10.1016/S0029-7844(02)02593-0.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Riley EH, Inui TS, Kleinman K, Connelly MT: Differential association of modifiable health behaviors with hot flashes in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. J Gen Intern Med. 2004, 19: 740-746. 10.1007/s11606-004-0002-3.View ArticlePubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Freeman EW, Sammel MD, Lin H, Gracia CR, Pien GW, Nelson DB, Sheng L: Symptoms associated with menopausal transition and reproductive hormones in midlife women. Obstet Gynecol. 2007, 110: 230-240. 10.1097/01.AOG.0000270153.59102.40.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Archer DF, Oger E: Estrogen and progestogen effect on venous thromboembolism in menopausal women. Climacteric. 2012, 15: 235-240. 10.3109/13697137.2012.664401.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Henderson VW, Lobo RA: Hormone therapy and the risk of stroke: perspectives 10 years after the Women’s Health Initiative trials. Climacteric. 2012, 15: 229-234. 10.3109/13697137.2012.656254.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Gompel A, Santen RJ: Hormone therapy and breast cancer risk 10 years after the WHI. Climacteric. 2012, 15: 241-249. 10.3109/13697137.2012.666456.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maki PM, Henderson VW: Hormone therapy, dementia, and cognition: the Women’s Health Initiative 10 years on. Climacteric. 2012, 15: 256-262. 10.3109/13697137.2012.660613.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sturdee DW: The menopausal hot flush - anything new?. Maturitas. 2008, 60: 42-49. 10.1016/j.maturitas.2008.02.006.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hall E, Frey BN, Soares CN: Non-hormonal treatment strategies for vasomotor symptoms a critical review. Drugs. 2011, 71: 287-304. 10.2165/11585360-000000000-00000.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Leach MJ, Moore V: Black cohosh (Cimicifuga spp.) for menopausal symptoms. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012, 9: CD007244-PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Borrelli F, Ernst E: Alternative and complementary therapies for the menopause. Maturitas. 2010, 66: 333-343. 10.1016/j.maturitas.2010.05.010.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Taku K, Melby M, Kronenberg F, Kurzer M, Messina M: Extracted or synthesized soybean isoflavones reduce menopausal hot flash. Menopause. 2012, 19: 776-907. 10.1097/gme.0b013e3182410159.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- van der Sluijs CP, Bensoussan A, Liyanage L, Shah S: Women’s health during mid-life survey: the use of complementary and alternative medicine by symptomatic women transitioning through menopause in Sydney. Menopause. 2007, 14: 397-403. 10.1097/01.gme.0000236937.36078.f4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- VanderPloeg K, Yi X: Acupuncture in modern society. J Acup Meridian Stud. 2009, 2: 26-33. 10.1016/S2005-2901(09)60012-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Witt CM, Pach D, Brinkhaus B, Wruck K, Tag B, Mank S, Willich SN: Safety of acupuncture: results of a prospective observational study with 229,230 patients and introduction of a medical information and consent form. Forsch Komplementmed. 2009, 16: 91-97. 10.1159/000209315.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Macpherson H, Scullion A, Thomas KJ, Walters S: Patient reports of adverse events associated with acupuncture treatment: a prospective national survey. Qual Saf Health Care. 2004, 13: 349-355. 10.1136/qshc.2003.009134.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Lin J-G, Chen W, Chen W-L: Acupuncture analgesia: a review of its mechanisms of actions. Am J Chin Med. 2008, 36: 45-10.1142/S0192415X08005576.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhao Z-Q: Neural mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia. Prog Neurobiol. 2008, 85: 355-375. 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2008.05.004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dhond RP, Kettner N, Napadow V: Neuroimaging acupuncture effects in the human brain. J Altern Complement Med. 2007, 13: 603-616. 10.1089/acm.2007.7040.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pariente J, White P, Frackowiak RSJ, Lewith G: Expectancy and belief modulate the neuronal substrates of pain treated by acupuncture. Neuroimage. 2005, 25: 1161-1167. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.01.016.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Joffe HLN, Deckersbach T, McCurnin K, Jameson M, Fischman A, Dougherty D, Hall J: PET scan activity in the insular cortex prior to onset of hot flashes on endocrine therapies. 2008 Breast Cancer Symposium. 2008Google Scholar
- Cho SH, Whang WW: Acupuncture for vasomotor menopausal symptoms: a systematic review. Menopause. 2009, 16: 1065-1073. 10.1097/gme.0b013e3181a48abd.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee MS, Shin BC, Ernst E: Acupuncture for treating menopausal hot flushes: a systematic review. Climacteric. 2009, 12: 16-25. 10.1080/13697130802566980.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Borud EK, Alraek T, White A, Fonnebo V, Eggen AE, Hammar M, Astrand LL, Theodorsson E, Grimsgaard S: The acupuncture on hot flushes among menopausal women (ACUFLASH) study, a randomized controlled trial. Menopause. 2009, 16: 484-493. 10.1097/gme.0b013e31818c02ad.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sunay D, Ozdiken M, Arslan H, Seven A, Aral Y: The effect of acupuncture on postmenopausal symptoms and reproductive hormones: a sham controlled clinical trial. Acupunct Med. 2011, 29: 27-31. 10.1136/aim.2010.003285.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim DI, Jeong JC, Kim KH, Rho JJ, Choi MS, Yoon SH, Choi S-M, Kang KW, Ahn HY, Lee MS: Acupuncture for hot flushes in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: a randomised, sham-controlled trial. Acupunct Med. 2011, 29: 249-256. 10.1136/aim.2011.004085.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- de Luca ACB, da Fonseca AM, Lopes CMC, Bagnoli VR, Soares JM, Baracat EC: Acupuncture-ameliorated menopausal symptoms: single-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Climacteric. 2011, 14: 140-145. 10.3109/13697137.2010.484875.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim KH, Kang KW, Kim DI, Kim HJ, Yoon HM, Lee JM, Jeong JC, Lee MS, Jung HJ, Choi SM: Effects of acupuncture on hot flashes in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women - a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Menopause. 2010, 17: 269-280. 10.1097/gme.0b013e3181bfac3b.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Langevin HM, Wayne PM, MacPherson H, Schnyer R, Milley RM, Napadow V, Lao L, Park J, Harris RE, Cohen M, Sherman KJ, Haramati A, Hammerschlag R: Paradoxes in acupuncture research: strategies for moving forward. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011, 2011: 1-11.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wyon Y, Wijma K, Nedstrand E, Hammar M: A comparison of acupuncture and oral estradiol treatment of vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women. Climacteric. 2004, 7: 153-164. 10.1080/13697130410001713814.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wyon Y, Lindgren R, Lundeberg T, Hammar M: Effects of acupuncture on climacteric vasomotor symptoms, quality-of-life, and urinary excretion of neuropeptides among postmenopausal women. Menopause. 1995, 2: 3-12.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim D, Rho J, Choi M: A clinical trial to assess the efficacy of acupuncture on hot flashes in postmenopausal women. Korean J Oriental Medicine. 2007, 28: 74-85.Google Scholar
- Vincent A, Barton DL, Mandrekar JN, Cha SS, Zais T, Wahner-Roedler DL, Keppler MA, Kreitzer MJ, Loprinzi C: Acupuncture for hot flashes: a randomized, sham-controlled clinical study. Menopause. 2007, 14: 45-52. 10.1097/01.gme.0000227854.27603.7d.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Avis NE, Legault C, Coeytaux RR, Pian-Smith M, Shifren JL, Chen W, Valaskatgis P: A randomized, controlled pilot study of acupuncture treatment for menopausal hot flashes. Menopause. 2008, 15: 1070-1078. 10.1097/gme.0b013e31816d5b03.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Streitberger K, Kleinhenz J: Introducing a placebo needle into acupuncture research. Lancet. 1998, 352: 364-365. 10.1016/S0140-6736(97)10471-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Park J, White A, Stevinson C, Ernst E, James M: Validating a new non-penetrating sham acupuncture device: two randomised controlled trials. Acupunct Med. 2002, 20: 168-174. 10.1136/aim.20.4.168.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fink M, Gutenbrunner C, Rollnik J, Karst M: Credibility of a newly designed placebo needle for clinical trials in acupuncture research. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2001, 8: 368-372. 10.1159/000057254.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- White P, Lewith G, Hopwood V, Prescott P: The placebo needle, is it a valid and convincing placebo for use in acupuncture trials? A randomised, single-blind, cross-over pilot trial. Pain. 2003, 106: 401-409. 10.1016/j.pain.2003.08.013.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Enblom A, Hammar M, Steineck G, Borjeson S: Can individuals identify if needling was performed with an acupuncture needle or a non-penetrating sham needle?. Complement Ther Med. 2008, 16: 288-294. 10.1016/j.ctim.2008.02.012.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tough EA, White AR, Richards SH, Lord B, Campbell JL: Developing and validating a sham acupuncture needle. Acupunct Med. 2009, 27: 118-122. 10.1136/aim.2009.000737.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nir Y, Huang MI, Schnyer R, Chen B, Manber R: Acupuncture for postmenopausal hot flashes. Maturitas. 2007, 56: 383-395. 10.1016/j.maturitas.2006.11.001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moher D, Hopewell S, Schulz KF, Montori V, Gotzsche PC, Devereaux PJ, Elbourne D, Egger M, Altman DG, Consort: CONSORT 2010 explanation and elaboration: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. Int J Surg. 2012, 10: 28-55. 10.1016/j.ijsu.2011.10.001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- MacPherson H, Altman DG, Hammerschlag R, Li Y, Wu T, White A, Moher D, Group SR: Revised STandards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA): extending the CONSORT statement. Acupunct Med. 2010, 28: 83-93. 10.1136/aim.2009.001370.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Harlow SD, Gass M, Hall JE, Lobo R, Maki P, Rebar RW, Sherman S, Sluss PM, de Villiers TJ: Executive summary of the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop +10: addressing the unfinished agenda of staging reproductive aging. Fertil Steril. 2012, 15: 105-114.Google Scholar
- Archer DF, Dupont CM, Constantine GD, Pickar JH, Olivier S: Desvenlafaxine for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of efficacy and safety. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009, 200: 238-e231–238.e210PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sloan JA, Loprinzi CL, Novotny PJ, Barton DL, Lavasseur BI, Windschitl H: Methodologic lessons learned from hot flash studies. J Clin Oncol. 2001, 19: 4280-4290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- State Administration of TCM: Criteria of Diagnosis and Therapeutic Effect of Disease and Syndromes in TCM. 1995, Nanjing: Nanjing University PressGoogle Scholar
- Zell B, Hirata J, Marcus A, Ettinger B, Pressman A, Ettinger KM: Diagnosis of symptomatic postmenopausal women by traditional Chinese medicine practitioners. Menopause. 2000, 7: 129-134. 10.1097/00042192-200007020-00010.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Borud EK, Alraek T, White A, Grimsgaard S: The acupuncture treatment for postmenopausal hot flushes (Acuflash) study: traditional Chinese medicine diagnoses and acupuncture points used, and their relation to the treatment response. Acupunct Med. 2009, 27: 101-108. 10.1136/aim.2009.000612.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee H, Bang H, Kim Y, Park J, Lee S, Lee H, Park H-J: Non-penetrating sham needle, is it an adequate sham control in acupuncture research?. Complement Ther Med. 2011, 19 (Suppl 1): S41-S48.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- White AR, Filshie J, Cummings TM: Clinical trials of acupuncture: consensus recommendations for optimal treatment, sham controls and blinding. Complement Ther Med. 2001, 9: 237-245. 10.1054/ctim.2001.0489.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Borud E, White A: A review of acupuncture for menopausal problems. Maturitas. 2010, 66: 131-134. 10.1016/j.maturitas.2009.12.010.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chae Y, Lee H, Kim H, Sohn H, Park J-H, Park H-J: The neural substrates of verum acupuncture compared to non-penetrating placebo needle: an fMRI study. Neurosci Lett. 2009, 450: 80-84. 10.1016/j.neulet.2008.11.048.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lewis JE, Hilditch JR, Wong CJ: Further psychometric property development of the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life questionnaire and development of a modified version, MENQOL-Intervention questionnaire. Maturitas. 2005, 50: 209-221. 10.1016/j.maturitas.2004.06.015.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zigmond AS, Snaith RP: The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1983, 67: 361-370. 10.1111/j.1600-0447.1983.tb09716.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- van Die MD, Teede HJ, Bone KM, Reece JE, Burger HG: Predictors of placebo response in a randomized, controlled trial of phytotherapy in menopause. Menopause. 2009, 16: 792-796. 10.1097/GME.0b013e318199d5e6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Devilly GJ, Borkovec TD: Psychometric properties of the credibility/expectancy questionnaire. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2000, 31: 73-86. 10.1016/S0005-7916(00)00012-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sackett DL: Commentary: measuring the success of blinding in RCTs: don’t, must, can’t or needn’t?. Int J Epidemiol. 2007, 36: 664-665. 10.1093/ije/dym088.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bang H, Ni L, Davis CE: Assessment of blinding in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials. 2004, 25: 143-156. 10.1016/j.cct.2003.10.016.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Soules MR, Sherman S, Parrott E, Rebar R, Santoro N, Utian W, Woods N: Executive summary: Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW). Climacteric. 2001, 4: 267-272. 10.1080/713605136.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Whitcomb BW, Whiteman MK, Langenberg P, Flaws JA, Romani WA: Physical activity and risk of hot flashes among women in midlife. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2007, 16: 124-133. 10.1089/jwh.2006.0046.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Whiteman MK, Staropoli CA, Benedict JC, Borgeest C, Flaws JA: Risk factors for hot flashes in midlife women. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2003, 12: 459-472. 10.1089/154099903766651586.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gold EB, Sternfeld B, Kelsey JL, Brown C, Mouton C, Reame N, Salamone L, Stellato R: Relation of demographic and lifestyle factors to symptoms in a multi-racial/ethnic population of women 40 to 55 years of age. Am J Epidemiol. 2000, 152: 463-473. 10.1093/aje/152.5.463.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McRae C, Cherin E, Yamazaki TG, Diem G, Vo AH, Russell D, Ellgring JH, Fahn S, Greene P, Dillon S, Winfield H, Bjugstad KB, Freed CR: Effects of perceived treatment on quality of life and medical outcomes in a double-blind placebo surgery trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004, 61: 412-420. 10.1001/archpsyc.61.4.412.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- StataCorp: Stata statistical software series 13. 2013, College Station, TX, 13Google Scholar
- White IR, Carpenter J, Horton NJ: Including all individuals is not enough: lessons for intention-to-treat analysis. Clin Trials. 2012, 9: 396-407. 10.1177/1740774512450098.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.