A proposal for reducing the effect of one of many causes of publication bias
© Richards and Burrett; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 26 March 2012
Accepted: 28 January 2013
Published: 12 February 2013
In order to avoid publication bias, all trials should be registered at initiation and their results made easily accessible. However, some trial results are more difficult to publish than others. This report describes one such trial and highlights the need for a way of making results of trials widely available even if not presented in the traditional format. Until such time as it is required by law both to register all trials and enter their final results into the database, a lack of resources will mean that some trial results are never published. The scale of the problem of non-publication is unknown and for valid trial results any form of publication is better than none. Therefore it is essential that a quick and easy way is available to act as a safety net to catch trial results that would otherwise be lost.
KeywordsPublication bias Randomized trial Polycythaemia Busulphan Radioactive phosphorous Venesection
The problem of publication bias in scientific research has been recognized for many years, and was drawn to the attention of the medical community in the 1980s . Since that time many studies have shown that lack, or delay, of publication is related to the statistical significance of the results [2–7]. Awareness of this has been increased by the rise in systematic reviews, and methods to assess the degree of publication bias in these have been developed . These methods provide a rating of the quality of the evidence but do not help in determining a corrected effect estimate.
Some measures have already been put in place to address the problem, such as the requirement that trials must have been registered in a recognized public trials registry at initiation as a condition of consideration for publication in a journal that is a member of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors . Even for trials which have been registered, publication rates are low .
We discuss here one example that illustrates that there may be additional ways of reducing this problem.
The paper remains without an abstract, discussion section or references and there are no resources available for any further work to be done. The trial was completed and we strongly believe that the results should be made publicly available. However, we have not found any journal that would accept the paper in this format (see Additional file 1: Medical Research Council randomized Polycythaemia trial results: long term outcome after busulphan, radioactive phosphorous or venesection).
Much recent discussion has focused on the issue of competing, particularly financial, interests, and the role of the pharmaceutical industry. This has led to a new US law requiring both the registration of trials and the entry of final results into a database , and the suggestion that legislation should be expanded internationally . However, there are other reasons behind non-publication, including a lack of resources, as in the example presented here.
The scale of the non-publication of trials is unknown, but providing a medium for reporting unpublished trials, together with any results that are available from them, would provide further information on this subject.
Thank you to Iain Chalmers and Doug Altman for encouragement to report this trial, and for the suggestion to write this commentary.
- Begg CB, Berlin JA: Publication bias: a problem in interpreting medical data. J Roy Stat Soc A. 1988, 151: 445-463.Google Scholar
- Dickersin K: The existence of publication bias and risk factors for its occurrence. JAMA. 1990, 263: 1385-1389. 10.1001/jama.1990.03440100097014.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dickersin K, Min YI, Meinert CL: Factors influencing publication of research results. Follow up of applications submitted to two institutional review boards. JAMA. 1992, 267: 374-378. 10.1001/jama.1992.03480030052036.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Easterbrook PJ, Berlin JA, Gopalan R, Matthews DR: Publication bias in clinical research. Lancet. 1991, 337: 867-872. 10.1016/0140-6736(91)90201-Y.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dwan K, Altman DG, Arnalz JA, Bloom J, Chan A-W, Cronin E, Decullier E, Easterbrook PJ, von Elm E, Gamble C, Ghersi D, Ioannidis JPA, Simes J, Williamson PR: Systematic review of the empirical evidence of study publication bias and outcome reporting bias. PLoS One. 2008, 3: e3081-10.1371/journal.pone.0003081.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Burrett JA, Lunn D: Analysis of characteristics of randomized clinical trials in leukaemia that are associated with how results are reported. JEBM. 2011, 4: 217-224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Paulson K, Saeed M, Mills J, Cuvelier GDE, Kumar R, Raymond C, Robinson T, Szwajcer D, Wall D, Seftel MD: Publication bias is present in blood and marrow transplantation: an analysis of abstracts at an international meeting. Blood. 2011, 118: 6698-6701. 10.1182/blood-2011-08-367466.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Montori V, Vist G, Kunz R, Brozek J, Alonso-Coello P, Djulbegovic B, Atkins D, Falck-Ytter Y, Williams JW, Meerpohl J, Norris SL, Akl EA, Schünemann HJ: GRADE guidelines 5: rating the quality of evidence - publication bias. J Clin Epidemiol. 2011, 64 (12): 1277-82. 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2011.01.011. Dec, Epub 2011 Jul 30View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- De Angelis C, Drazen JM, Frizelle FA, Haug C, Hoey J, Horton R, Kotzin S, Laine C, Marusic A, Overbeke AJPM, Schroeder TV, Sox HC, Van Der Weyden MB: Clinical trial registration: a statement from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Lancet. 2004, 364: 911-912. 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17034-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ross JS, Mulvey GK, Nissen SE, Krumholz HM: Trial publication after registration in ClinicalTrials.gov: a cross-sectional analysis. PLoS Med. 2009, 6 (9): e1000144-10.1371/journal.pmed.1000144.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Tuma RS: New law may be having some effect on publication bias. JNCI. 2010, 102: 290-292. 10.1093/jnci/djq051.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bian Z-X, Wu T-X: Legislation for trial registration and data transparency. Trials. 2010, 11: 64-66. 10.1186/1745-6215-11-64.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.